Last article tackled Minister Shawar allowing the Franks to have their knights settled in Cairo and to control its gates, and their attempt to take over Egypt and the command of burning it, then the coming of Asad al-Din on head of the armies to succeed the country’s ministry two months after the murder of Shawar, Salah al-Din Yusuf IbnAyyub (Salah al-Din al-Ayyubi), assumed the Ministry of Egypt, and was called Al-Malek Al-Naser.
When Asad al-Din died, three of Nur al-Din’s princeswho accompanied Asad al-Din to Egypt disagreed over the appointment of Salah al-Din in the place of his uncle; they are: Ain al-Din al-Yarooqi, the head of the Turks, Saif al-Din al-Mashtoub, the King of the Kurds and Shihab al-Din Mahmud, ruler of Harem, Salah al-Din’s uncle; each of them lusted for the ministry. But Al-Adid summoned Salah al-Din and appointed him over the ministry. When Al-Malek Al-Adel Nur al-Dinknew about the agreement of Egypt’s princes to entrust Salah al-Din with the Ministry of Egypt, Shams al-DawlaTuran Shah bin Ayyubasked him to allow him to go to Egypt to support his brotherSalah al-Din, and he was granted his request. Historians mention: “Turan Shah walked to Egypt and Salah al-Din received him from Belbeis,served him and gave him money, horses and antiques, he stayed there amidst good conditions, he supported his brother Salah al-Din.”
When Salah al-Din took over the ministry, he took care of the soldiers, gave them money and was kind to everyone – the Levantine and Egyptian soldiers – so they loved and obeyed him, and he acted as a representative of Nur al-Din to the extent that the pulpits of Egypt mentioned him in their prayers after Caliphs Al-Adid and Nur al-Din, until 567 AH (1172 AD), when prayers for Al-Adid were ceased and prayers for Bani Al-Abbas returned again.
But when Caliph Al-Adidsaw that the authority of Salah al-Din grew more powerful in the country, he feared the potentialconsequences. So he ordered his servant, Mo’taman Al-KhilafaJawhar- and he was the provider of Sudan and the servants- to fight the Turks and Al-Ghaz(a tribe of them). The Egyptian military and servants revolted and killed a group of the Turks. Both Salah al-Din and Shams al-Dawla were jealous as they had Turkish origins, so they were determined to take revenge; they entered the palace of Mo’taman Al-Khilafa, killed him along with a large number of Sudanese after great wars. Historian IbnTaghri mentioned about Judge Jamal al-Din bin Wasel: “Prince Hussam al-Din bin Abi Ali told me: My grandfather was in the service of Salah al-Din, so he said that when this incident occurred (meaning the incident of Sudan in Cairo) in which their state has vanished, and the Ubaid family has vanished from Egypt. He said: One day, Salah al-Din sent me to Al-Adid to ask him for a horse, and he has only one mare left. So I came to him while he was riding in the orchard known as “Al-Kafuri” next to the palace, and I said to him: Sultan Salah al-Din greets you and asks you for a horse; He said: I have none but the horse that I am riding, and he got down from it, ripped his shoes and threw them away thenhanded the horse to me, so I brought it to Salah Al-Din while Al-Adid stayed in his house. Salah Al-Din got busy with the country affairs and Al-Adid remained formally with him until he was deposed. Then, prayers were raised for the Abbasid Commander of the Faithful, Al-Mostadi’ bi Amr Allah in his lifetime…”
Al-Adid passed away at the age of twenty-three. Historians have disagreed upon the reasons behind his death: it was said that when he realized that his rule had come to an end, he was struck by a severe illness that took away his life. It was said that when he knew about the prayers which were raised for Bani al-Abbas in the Egyptian lands after nearly two centuries, he deeply grieved and died. It was also said that when he was sure of downfall of his state and rule, he sucked a poisoned stone that was in a ring in his finger, and he immediately died. The death of Caliph Al-Adid marked the end of the rule of the Fatimid caliphs in Egypt and their state, which had lasted for more than two hundred years. And … stories about beautiful Egypt never end!
The General Bishop
Head of the Coptic Orthodox Cultural Center