The previous article tackled four of the Abbasid state caliphs: Al-Muqtafi Li Amr Allah (530-555 AH) (1136-1160 AD), then his son Al-Mustanjid Billah (555-566 AH) (1136-1171 AD), then his son “Al-Mustadi’ Billah” (566 – 575 AH) (1171 – 1179 / 1180 AD), who was succeeded by Al-Nasir Li Din Allah (575-622 AH) (1180-1225 AD) who sought the help of the Tatars, it is mentioned: “But he miscalculated the situation, as he sought the help of a youthful state (the Tatars or the Mongols) that had lusts for the caliphate, in order to eliminate a state that had entered the phase of its dissolution and downfall, he acted as if jumping out of the frying pan into the fire…” Resorting to the Mongols opened the door for their ambitions to expand, so historians say: “Al-Nasir made a grave mistake when he resorted to the Mongols. He gave them the chance to covet countries of the Abbasid state and showed them its weakness points, so they seized this great opportunity and turned the current of their conquests towards the west and raided the outskirts of the state, they fought “Shah Khwarizm” and eliminated his authority, as well as the authority of other Muslim princes in the Peninsula, Mosul and Asia Minor, then they descended on Iraq and entered Baghdad afterwards” This led to the destruction of the Abbasid state. Caliph Al-Nasir Li Din Allah died in 622 AH (1225 AD), and was succeeded by his son, Abu al-Nasr Muhammad al-Zahir Bi Amr Allah.
Al Zahir Bi Amr Allah (622- 623 AH) (1225- 1226 AD)
He is the thirty-fifth among the Abbasid caliphs. He assumed the caliphate succeeding his father Al-Nasir. It was said that he was fair among his subjects; he reduced taxes, and cared about building a strong army. Historian Ibn al-Atheer said about him: “When Al-Zahir assumed the caliphate, he showed justice and benevolence by which he restored the Sunnah of the Two Umars. It was truly said that nobody succeeded Umar Ibn Abdel-Aziz like him.” He returned a lot of the money that had been seized during his father’s days, he abolished taxes all over the country, and ordered the return of taxes in all Iraq to its previous era. It was reported, concerning his justice, that he returned more than one hundred thousand dinars taken forcefully back to their owners. It was also mentioned that he was generous with scholars and righteous people, granting them a lot of money. Al-Zahir Bi Amr Allah died in 623 AH (1226 AD), after ruling for nearly nine months and fourteen days, and his son, Abu Jaafar al-Mansur, took over the caliphate after him.
Al-Mustansir Billah (623- 640 AH) (1226- 1242 AD)
Abu Jaafar al-Mansur, nicknamed Al-Mustansir Billah, the thirty-sixth among the Abbasid caliphs, and it was mentioned about him that: “He was a generous man, and he had great influences in Baghdad on top of which is establishing Al-Mustansiriya School on Tigris Bank from the eastern side… and he built other arches, khans, shelters for the poor and guest houses.” He ruled for nearly seventeen years, during which the influence of the Mongols in Asia and in the Abbasid state countries increased. Where they invaded the country and set it to fire. However, credit goes to Caliph Al-Mustansir for fighting the Mongol soldiers with his army and defeated them crushingly. Al-Mustansir Billah died in 640 AH (1242 AD) to be succeeded by his son, Al-Mustasim Billah.
Al-Mustasim Billah (640- 656 AH) (1242- 1258 AD)
He is the last caliph of the Abbasid state. His name is Abu Ahmed Abdullah, and he was nicknamed Al-Mustasim Billah. He assumed the caliphate after the death of his father, and ruled the country until the Mongols raided the properties of the Abbasid state, and were able to enter and seize Baghdad where they captured the caliph in 656 AH (1258 AD). Afterwards, the Mongol commander Hulagu Khan left Baghdad, taking with him Caliph Al-Mustasim, whom he killed on the way. Some historians mentioned that Al-Mustasim was of a weak character, inexperienced in matters of governance, and that he was chosen by statesmen and courtiers. His minister, Mu’ayyad al-Dawla al-Alqami, played a major role in the fall of Baghdad in the hands of the Mongols. It was also said about him that he was pious, of a chaste tongue, generous and benevolent. The death of Caliph Al-Mustasim marked the end of the Abbasid Caliphate in the capital, Baghdad.
As for Egypt during this epoch, it witnessed a lot of events, and… stories about beautiful Egypt never end!
The General Bishop
Head of the Coptic Orthodox Cultural Center